“The Neolithic Period”
Vitis Vinifera’s Natural Distribution and
According to Dr. Patrick E. McGovern, the Scientific Director of the Biomolecular Archaeology Laboratory for Cuisine, Fermented Beverages and Health at the University of Pennsylvania Museum in Philadelphia and to Dr. José Vouillamoz from University of Neuchâtel in Switzerland who specializes in the study of the origin and parentage of grape varieties through DNA typing (or genetic fingerprinting); they both show the South East part of Turkey as the origin of grape seeds and grape domestication dating back to 9.000 BC.
“from the Bronze Age to Antiquity”
The first traces of viticulture and winemaking in Anatolia date back 7,000 years. Wine had an indispensable role in the social lives of the oldest civilizations of Anatolia the Hattis and the Hittites. It was the primary libation offered to the gods during rituals attended by royalty and high governors. Provisions protecting viticulture in Hittite law, and the custom of celebrating each vintage with a holiday, suggest that wine was important to both ancient economies and ancient cultural practices.
The Phrygians Introduced Wine to Greek Colonists on Anatolia’s Western Flank
For the Phrygians, who lived in Anatolia after the Hittites, wine was an essential part of daily life and an important element in their diet along with olive oil, fish, and bread. The Phrygians introduced wine to Greek colonists on Anatolia’s western flank, and by the 6th century BC wine was being exported as far as France and Italy from trading and production centres such as Tabae (Tavas, near the present-day Pamukkale) and Klazomenai (near Urla) both in the southern Aegean region and Ainos (Enez) to the north. Knidos (today’s Datça), on the southwest Mediterranean coast, and the island of Rhodes were also leading centres for the wine trade. One of these early Anatolian grapes, Misket, became known as Muscat in Europe. Another variety from Smyrna (today’s Izmir), was used in the production of the famous wine of Pramnios, which is mentioned in Homer’s Iliad.
“The Hellenistic Period Wine Regions”
“Pramneion, produced in the İzmir Region was a dry and full bodied wine with high tannin and alcohol.”
“Phonecia colony Lampsakos (Lapseki) is known with its wines.”
In the Galatia Region in Central Anatolia, sweet wine was produced called Scybelites.
“Scybelites produced in Galatia always keeps its freshness as the Halyntium wine of Sicily.”
Gaius Plinius Secundus